Quick Start 4-Mini Fast with Bone Broth and Exercise
The Mini Fast
Want to lose weight and eat anything you want? Hate diets? The Clearfield Medical Group’s “Mini-Fast with Bone Broth and Exercise” is your ticket to heaven.
Fasting. A “diet” commanded by religious leaders of every major denomination, exalted as a pathway to a higher self, and practiced by millions of faithful no matter the underlying tenants of their faith?
“You mean like in high school when I’d skip breakfast and get dizzy headed by third period?” To a degree.
“Bone broth. A fancy term for chicken soup. What my grandmother gave me when I was sick.” Also to a degree.
“Exercise. Ugh.” We will make it fun.
Fasting is the willful abstinence or reduction of food, drink, or both, for a period of time.(1) An absolute fast is defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually 24 hours, or a number of days.(2)
Practiced by ancient to modern day Hebrews to commemorate their atonement from sin, Jesus, when He was tempted by Satan, and by Muslims during the holy month of Ramadan, the fourth pillar of Islam, fasting, for health, philosophical, political, or religious is as old as recorded history.
“The best of all medicines are rest and fasting.” – Benjamin Franklin
“Fasting is the first principle of medicine; fast and see the strength of the spirit reveal itself.” ~Rumi
Reducing calories by 30-40% is a proven life extender.(3) Fasting increases Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), Platelet (PLT) count, and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), the so called “good cholesterol.”(4)
Fasting enhances cell turnover and repair, burns fat instead of carbohydrates, results in a surge of growth hormone in the blood stream, and markedly increases metabolic rate.
Fasting positively affects ghrelin, the hunger hormone, allowing better appetite control, enhanced insulin sensitivity, cardiac function, chemotherapy efficiency, and neurotoxin protection.
Fasting decreases total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density (bad) lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c), body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat, blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and anxiety levels. Fasting diminishes inflammation, the root cause of chronic disease, as measured by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha profiles. Fasting populations have greatly reduced rates of cancer. (5)
Fasting doesn’t change what we eat, it changes when we eat.(6) By narrowing the time we take in nutrients, we alter the utilization of those nutrients for fuel and energy.
Fasting is not starvation. Some patients, at first, experience mild withdrawal like symptoms, headaches, shakiness, runny nose or stomach grumblings. The key to overcoming this natural and predictable outcome, is to take in enough fluid to overcome the dizziness and lightheadedness that accompanies fasting. Acceptable hydration is derived from water, tea, coffee and bone broth. (See our special section on bone broth at the end of this chapter.)
We recommend spiking 8-10 oz. of water with a ½ teaspoonful of sea salt and lemon or lime juice for flavoring. This will keep you hydrated while fasting and exercising. Though not encouraged, if you are drinking tea or coffee, we allow a low calorie creamer and /or calorie free sweetener in the form of xylitol or stevia. Alternatively, a cup of bone broth is the perfect vehicle for fasting, exercising and burning fat.
Frequently Asked Questions and Common “Outrages” Regarding the Mini-Fast
- I Can’t Fast, I Will Die: No, you won’t. Many a young mother, too busy to eat, tending to her flock has missed a meal and survived. It’s as much a mindset as anything else. If hunger sets in, get yourself busy, increase your fluids, don’t forget to put in a pinch of salt, and get on with it. Especially with the daily (mini) fast, it quickly becomes a habit and most of our patients tell us they feel more energetic and don’t miss the meal they’ve forgone.
- Isn’t Breakfast the Most Important Meal of the Day? No, it’s not. To cereal makers, fast food joints and anyone selling you something for breakfast, it is. In the real world, delaying breakfast is no different than delaying any other meal. In fact, the “breakfast” (mini) fast is the easiest and most popular of our fasting regimens. Drink your glass of water with a ½ teaspoonful of sea salt, flavor with lemon or lime if you like, or have a cup of bone broth, put on your sneakers and walk, jog or run during the time you would normally be eating. Without a meal on board for 12-16 hours, you are burning fat stores, not the carbohydrates you would have ingested at breakfast.
- Don’t I need to Eat Every 3-4 hours? No, you don’t. 2000 calories in two meals in 24 hours counts the same as 2000 calories in over four to six meals in twenty-four hours. In fact, the number of calories we eat has risen by more than 20% in women and approximately 10% in men following the 6 meal a day recommendations were made in the mid 1980’s. (7)On the flip side, a 2007 retrospective study of daily energy intake, physical activity, weight loss, and smoking during the Cuban economic crisis of 1989 through 2000, resulting in a 35% reduction in caloric intake netted an increase of physically active adults from 30% to 67%, a 1.5-unit shift in the body mass index distribution, a 100% decline in obesity, and significant declines in mortality due to diabetes (51% ), coronary heart disease (35%), stroke (20%), and all causes (18%).(8)
- Is Fasting for Everyone? No, it’s not. Children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and those individuals that are moderately to severely malnourished should not fast.
- I will Lose Muscle Mass. No, you won’t. When eating, we burn carbohydrates, sugar for fuel. After an 8-12 hour fast, those calories are gone and any further caloric needs are derived from our fat stores. As long as we have enough protein on board, 1.0-1.5 grams per pound, our muscle mass is preserved.
- I’ll Be Too Hungry, Obsess About Food, and Make Things Worse. You might. However, if you occupy your time with meaningful activities,hydrate adequately with water, sea salt and/or bone broth, be kind to yourself, if you slip up get back on the horse, don’t go hog wild after the fast is over, and choose a fasting schedule compatible with your lifestyle, it will be easier to stick too.If your hunger is overwhelming, especially at work, driving, or any task requiring your undivided concentration, consuming 8-10 ounces of water flavored with lemon or lime and mixed with ½ tsp of sea salt, coffee, tea or even a handful of nuts and seeds will usually get you past the crisis.
- What About Medications? Medications are always an issue. Our goal is to safely reduce, with an eye to eliminating, as many medications as we can. NSAIDS, aspirin, motrin, advil and others of similar ilk need to have some sort of food or liquid to protect against GI irritation. Always check with your healthcare provider.There exists a plethora of over the counter vitamins, mineral, herbs and nutraceuticals that perform the same function, often at less expense, and without the GI upset, as the above mentioned drugs. If we can’t switch out the GI irritants we recommend changing your medication time to the first full meal of the day.Diabetics, it is important to monitor your blood sugar. If it is dropping, or you feel faint or light headed, having a snack of nuts and seeds on hand in case your sugar drops too low. This is a signal that you need less medication, one of the goals of all our programs.Reflux esophagitis, is best treated with a combination:Deglycyrrhizinated Licorice extract (root) 200 mgMarshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) extract (8:1) 200 mgSlippery Elm (Ulmusfulva) extract (root) 200 mg
Artichoke (Cynarascolymus l.) extract (leaf) 150 mg
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract (root) 100 mg
These combos can be found at any good vitamin or health food store under various brand names.
We don’t recommend “traditional” over the counter Proton Pump Inhibitors (Prilosec, Nexium, Protonix, etc.) as these were only indicated for short term, 2 to 4 weeks at most, use.They have been abused for years. Some patients are on these medications since the day they were released in the late 1980’s.
Long term use of PPIs results in malabsorption of calcium and magnesium and bacterial overgrowth. The loss of calcium and magnesium leads to bone fractures and cardiac abnormalities.(9) PPIs reduce stomach acid. Chronically reduced stomach acid leads to a 2.9 fold increase of harmful bacteria, particularly c. difficile.(10) Long term PPI users also experience a 450% higher rate of community acquired pneumonia. (11)
- How Do I Avoid Lightheadedness, Hunger and Lethargy?Keep well hydrated. You really can’t drink too much and while we recommend 8-10 ounces of water with a ½ teaspoonful of sea salt as a staple, you may add fresh lemon or lime juice, use no sugar, no artificially sweetened sparkling water, coffee with a little creamer (
Essentially bone broth is a fancy schmancy “medical term” for chicken soup. Sort of. Bubby (Grandmother): “Boychick, you’re farshleptehkrenk. Here, eat. Shtshav n lokshen (chicken soup and noodles). Your keppie (head) will clear.”
No matter your religious background, the legend of chicken with noodles and vegetables simmered for hours, is the stuff of legends. My Bubby, grandmother, could neither read nor write, spoke no English, survived the Russian pogroms of the early 1900’s, walked from her shetl (village) in Bessarabia, present day Moldova, 1400 miles to Boulogne-Sur-Mer in the north of France, somehow found passage to New York., and knew instinctively the medicinal properties of “Jewish Penicillin.”
In this “modern era,” my “illiterate” grandmother, of course, knew from nothing. Science is what’s important, as is publishing if you are in academia. In October, 2000 a report in the medical journal “Chest” titled “Chicken Soup Inhibits Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vitro,” “proved” Bubby right. Chicken soup inhibited white (inflammatory) blood cell migration in a concentration dependent manner.(12)
Anti-inflammatory activity was present in a component of the chicken soup. All of the vegetables present in the soup and the chicken individually had inhibitory activity, although only the chicken lacked cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, the complete soup also lacked cytotoxic activity.(13)
Commercial soups varied greatly in their inhibitory activity. The study suggested that chicken soup may contained a number of substances with beneficial medicinal activity. A mild anti-inflammatory effect could be one mechanism by which the soup could result in the mitigation of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections.(14)
In case you inclined to duplicate the study, here is the recipe that proved Bubby was more of a scientist than even she knew.
- 1 5- to 6-lb stewing hen or baking chicken
- 1 package of chicken wings;
- 3 large onions
- 1 large sweet potato
- 3 parsnips; • 2 turnips
- 11 to 12 large carrots
- 5 to 6 celery stems;
- 1 bunch of parsley;
- salt and pepper to taste.
Clean the chicken, put it in a large pot, and cover with cold water. Bring the water to a boil. Add the chicken wings, onions, sweet potato, parsnips, turnips, and carrots. Boil about 1.5 h. Remove fat from the surface as it accumulates. Add the parsley and celery.
Cook the mixture about 45 min longer. Remove the chicken. The chicken is not used further for the soup. (The meat makes excellent chicken parmesan.) Put the vegetables in a food processor until they are chopped fine or pass through a strainer. Both were performed in the present study. Salt and pepper to taste. (Note: this soup freezes well.) Matzoh balls were prepared according to the recipe on the back of the box of matzoh meal (Manischewitz; Jersey City, NJ). (15)
Fast forward to today. There’s chicken broth, chicken stock and for us hardy disciples of everything old is new again,”Bone Broth.” My initial understanding was they were all the same entity. A careful internet search reveals harsh rhetoric and denunciation amongst the “Bone Broth” faithful. Broth is broth, stock is stock and “bone broth” is the new medicinal wonder. Mix them up at your own peril.
Broth is made with meat, contains some bones, is simmered for 1 to 2 hours, has a light flavor, thin texture and is rich in protein.(16)
Stock is made with bones and a small amount of meat, and is simmered for 3-4 hours. Roasting the bones before simmering greatly improves the flavor.(17)
“Bone Broth,” consists of the bones and meat adhering to the bones. Roasting the bones pre simmer improves its’ flavor. Bone broth is simmered overnight at a minimum and often for 24 hours or more. The goal is to produce gelatin and release its’ minerals from the bones.(18)
The Benefits of Bone Broth
- High in calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, and potassium. Low in sodium.
- Contains no sugar, is low in calories, carbohydrates, and high (10-12 gm) in protein.
- Fortifies the immune system.
- Heals “leaky” gut syndrome which leads to allergies, IBS, Crohn’s Disease and ulcerative colitis.
- Enhances digestion-protects and soothes the GI tract lining.
- Contains proline and glycine which support collagen production. Collagen improves bone density, joint, tendon and ligament integrity, teeth, mucous membranes, skin elasticity, skin suppleness, and moisture levels.
- Supports adrenal function by improving cortisol imbalances in adrenal fatigue.
- Replenishes amino acids arginine, glycine, glutamine and proline necessary for releasing growth hormone, regenerating damaged liver cells, improving sleep and memory, regenerating cartilage, easing joints, improving metabolism, and building muscle. Arginine, glutamine, and proline are deficient in the vast majority of chronic illnesses
- Glycine (from collagen) supports synthesis of hemoglobin, bile salts, and skin health.
- Supports detoxification in the liver. The liver’s ability to detoxify efficiently is proportional to the amount of glycine available.(21)
- Provides the substrate (again glycine) for the body’s most abundant antioxidant, glutathione.
- Contains glucosamine and chondroitin–anti-inflammatory joint supplements.
- Consists of gelatin, a protein source with anti-inflammatory properties providing protection against food allergies especially gluten and dairy.
- Improves nutrient and fat soluble vitamin (A,D,E, and K) absorption.
- Supports connective tissue and helps fingernails and hair to grow.
Bubby Clearfield’s Bone Broth Recipe
Bone Broth Prepared in A Large Stock Pot or Slow Cooker
- 1 whole chicken, bones and all. (Being from the low fat era, I’m still pulling the skin off. Most experts disagree and leave the chicken intact. Gives me an “ick” factor.)
- Dill, 1/2 cup, minced
- Celery, carrots, bay leaf
- ½ small onion, chopped
- 1 turnip, sliced
- 1 parsnip, chopped
- Place all ingredients except the chicken into the stock pot or slow cooker. When completed, place chicken in pot, then cover to near brim with water. Bring to a boil, then lower to a simmer. Skim the fat off the top until liquid is clear. Cook for 2 hours if using a stock pot. If using a slow cooker, leave on continuously replenishing the water when necessary. Bones can be boiled for up to one week before discarding. Chicken and remaining ingredients.
- If made in stockpot you may begin using broth immediately. Let cool before freezing leftover stock in glass jars (we use Mason Jars). If using a slow cooker, simmer twenty-four hours before using the broth. As needed dip a ladle or measuring cup into the slow cooker to remove the amount needed. Pour it through a fine-mesh sieve or coffee filter clarifying the broth. Replace the broth you remove from the slow cooker with an equivalent amount of filtered water.
- If using a whole, fresh chicken, you may remove chicken meat from the slow cooker as desired.
- On a weekly basis strain off any remaining broth and discard or compost the bones. Clean the insert and begin again.
Just for Fun: A Professional’s Chicken and Beef Broth (18)
(Adapted from A Good Food Day, by Marco Canora)
- 4 lbs. chicken bones (any combination of backs, necks, and feet)
- 2 lbs. beef bones (shin or neck)
- 2 small onions, peeled and quartered
- 4 small carrots, cut into 1-inch pieces
- 4 stalks celery, cut into 1-inch pieces
- 1/2 bunch flat-leaf parsley
- 1 bunch fresh thyme
- 12 oz. can tomatoes, drained
- 1 head garlic, halved crosswise
- 1 tsp. black peppercorns
- 2 bay leaves
- Combine bones in a deep 8-quart pot.
- Rinse with cold water, scrubbing with your hands.
- Drain and pack bones in pot.
- Cover with 4 inches of cold water and cook over medium-high heat for about 45 minutes until liquid boils.
- Reduce heat to medium and move pot so burner is off to one side. (This helps broth to circulate.)
- Simmer until broth looks clear, about 1 hour, occasionally using a ladle to skim off surface fats and foamy impurities.
- When broth looks clear, add remaining ingredients and simmer for an additional 2 hours.
- Use a spider skimmer to remove and discard bits of meat.
- Put a fine-mesh strainer over another large pot and pour broth through it; discard solids.
- Drink immediately, or let cool before storing. Makes 2 1/2 quarts.
Prep time 5 mins Cook time 24 hours Total time 24 hours 5 mins
That’s A Lot of Mishmash Here’s What To Do.
- Eat 2 meals per day in a continuous 8 hour time period.
- Fast for 16 hours, If your last meal is dinner, 6 P.M., your next meal is lunch the next day. This fulfills our 16:8 criteria.
- You may have 2-3 high protein, high fat snacks between meals. See the snack list for suggestions.
- Plan your exercise session for the time of the fast. If you fast through breakfast, this is your exercise time.
- Hydrate adequately. Acceptable fluids include water, sparkling water, flavored water, preferably with lemon or lime, bone broth, coffee, or tea.
- Review and choose low-glycemic foods (<50). See the glycemic index chart.
- Do not go hungry. Eat until you are full.
- No fruit juices, white sugar, artificial sweeteners, diet sodas, dried fruits, or dairy except for a limited amount of Greek Yogurt.
- Make a meal by choosing an item from each of our “Chinese Menu” Columns A (Protein), B (Complex), and C (Fats).
- Use flax seeds and plain, unsalted almonds.
- Watery fruits, while better than a candy bar, are high in natural sugars. Go easy on anything that needs mopping up after you bite into it. (Bananas, melons, and mangoes for instance.)
- Be mindful of sugars in low fat, low calorie salad dressings.
- A food diary improves compliance by 29% according to the Harvard Medical School.
- For adult beverages consult the Clearfield Medical Group Adult Beverage Paper.
- Combine Bragg’s Apple Cider Vinegar or Bragg’s Liquid Amino’s with Lemon Juice for a high protein low carbohydrate, sugar free salad dressing.
- Do not shy away from plant based (olive oil, coconut oil, avocado oil) fats.
- Sugar and caffeine cravings can be controlled with L-Tyrosine and L Glutamine.
- Salt and carbohydrate cravings amenable to L-Tryptophan and 5 HTP.
- Fat cravings are susceptible to fish oil and phosphatidylsereine.
- Protein deficiencies and stress can be ameliorated with GABA.
Quick Start Weight Loss Programs
What to Eat on the Mini Fast Diet (500-800 Calories/D)
Protein (100 grams)
Chicken Breast (Skinless)
Turkey Breast (Skinless)
Buffalo (Steak or Ground)
Egg Whites (3 or ½ cup Egg Substitute)
Vegetables (1 cup/meal)
Leafy greens, lettuce
Tea, coffee, Mineral Water
Lemon, Lime juice
Braggs Amino Acids
1 tbsp ½ and ½, fat free
(2/d or 2 cups/d)
Olive Oil (1 tsp/d)
Spritzer’s Salad Dressing
Braggs Amino Acids and Lemon Juice
|What To Eat||Breakfast||Snack||Lunch||Snack||Dinner||Snack|
|Fast, Liquid Protein||1 serving||Liquid Protein||1 Serving||Fast|
|Weight Loss Supple-|
|1 serving||Weight Loss|
|Included in Protein||1 serving||Included in Protein||1 Serving||Fast|
|What To Eat||Breakfast||Snack||Lunch||Snack||Dinner||Snack|
|Protein||1 serving||Liquid Protein or Bone Broth||Fast|
|Fast||1 Serving||Liquid Protein|
|Carbohydrate||1 serving||Weight Loss Supple-|
|Fast||1 Serving||Weight Loss Supplement|
|Fat||1 serving||Included in Protein||Fast|
|Fast||1 Serving||Liquid Protein or Bone Broth|
|What to Eat||Breakfast||Snack||Lunch||Snack||Dinner||Snack|
|Protein||1 serving||Liquid Protein||1 serving||Liquid Protein||Fast|
|Carbohydrate||1 serving||Weight Loss Supplement||1 serving||Weight Loss|
|Fat||1 serving||Included in Protein||1 serving||Included in Protein||Fast|
14 Day Breakfast Mini-Fast Weekly Planner
(See Recipes in Recipe Chapter)
|Day 1||Day 2||Day 3||Day 4||Day 5||Day 6||Day 7|
|Snack||Veggie Sticks w Hummus||Sliced Pears and Kiwis|
|Kale Chips||Green Smoothie||Apple, Banana Slices|
|Minestrone Soup||Spicy Black Beans and Tomatoes||Cod with mixed green Salad with Veggies of Choice|
Basic Salad Dressing
|Steamed Broccoli, Kale, and/or Swiss Chard (thinly chopped) topped with Olive Oil||Chicken, Grapes, Salad, Almond|
Braggs Salad Dressing
|Dinner||Ratatouille w Brown Rice|| Pasta and Beans|
Green Salad with Sliced Cucumber, Radish, Red Onion,
Braggs Salad Dressing
|Spinach and Bean Soup|
| Vegetarian Chili topped with leftover Ratatouille|
Mixed Green Salad with Sliced Red Bell Peppers Red Cabbage
Mixed Green Salad
Braggs Amino Acid Dressing
|Salmon Salad with Spinach and Cherry Tomatoes, and Cucumber Slices|
|Chicken Kabob with Salad|
14 Day Mini-Fast-Weekly Planner
|Day 8||Day 9||Day 10||Day 11||Day 12||Day 13||Day 14|
|Snack||Kale Chips||Rice Cakes and Hummus||Apple Slices|
|Kale Chips||Green Smoothie||Apple, Banana Slices|
|Lunch||Vegetable Chili||Grilled Chicken with Salad||Carrot Salad||Turkey Burger||Grilled Sole|
Braggs Salad Dressing
|Snack||Cherry Tomatoes & Cucumbers with Guacamole||Celery wit|
Side: Steamed Broccoli & Yellow Rice
|Sweet Potato Squash|
Braggs Salad Dressing
Mixed Green Salad
Braggs Salad Dressing
Braggs Salad Dressing
|Salmon Salad with Spinach and Cherry Tomatoes, and Cucumber Slices||Chicken, Broccoli,|
(1-2) https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid= hrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#=fasting, accessed April 4, 2016.
(3) Morin, K., “5 Intermittent Fasting Methods: Which One Is Right for You?,”
http://dailyburn.com/life/health/intermittent-fasting-methods/, accessed March 29, 2016.
(4 )Faris MA1, Kacimi S, Al-Kurd R, Fararjeh MA, Bustanji YK, Mohammad MK, Salem M, , Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 2012 Dec;32(12):947-55. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.021. Epub 2012 Oct 4.
(5) Faris MA1, Kacimi S, Al-Kurd RA, Fararjeh MA, Bustanji YK, Mohammad MK, Salem M, , Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. Nutr Res. 2012 Dec;32(12):947-55. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.021. Epub 2012 Oct 4.
(6) Clear, J., The Beginner’s Guide to Intermittent Fasting, http://jamesclear.com/the-beginners-guide-to-intermittent-fasting,AccessedApril , 2016
(7) Whitaker, Julian M., and Peggy Dace. The Mini-fast Diet: Burn Fat Faster than Ever with the Simple Science of Intermittent Fasting. New York, NY: Rodale, 2012: P. 23-24.
(8) Franco, M., et al.; Impact of Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Population-wide Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Mortality in Cuba, 1980–2005, Am. J. Epidemiol. (2007) 166(12): 1374-1380.doi: 10.1093/aje/kwm226 First published online: September 19, 2007.
(9) Khalili H, Huang ES, Jacobson BC, et al. Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of hip fracture in relation to dietary and lifestyle factors: a prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012;344:e372.
(10) Linsky A, Gupta K, Lawler EV, et al. Proton pump inhibitors and risk for recurrent Clostridium difficileinfection.Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:772–778.
(11)Laheij RJ, Sturkenboom MC, Hassing RJ, et al. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. JAMA. 2004;292:1955–1960.
(12) Barbara O. Rennard, BA; Ronald F. Ertl, BS; Gail L. Gossman, BS; Richard A. Robbins, MD, FCCP; and Stephen I. Rennard, MD, FCCP, Chicken Soup Inhibits Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vitro; Chest / 118/4/ October, 2000;1151.
(13) Barbara O. Rennard, BA; Ronald F. Ertl, BS; Gail L. Gossman, BS; Richard A. Robbins, MD, FCCP; and Stephen I. Rennard, MD, FCCP, Chicken Soup Inhibits Neutrophil Chemotaxis In Vitro; Chest / 118/4/ October, 2000;1151.
(14-16) http://nourishedkitchen.com/bone-broth/Accessed April 18, 2016
(17) Chen, T., 10 Ways Bone Broth Will Change Your Life, http://www.careercontessa.com/conversations/bone-broth, March 23, 2015, Accessed April 20, 2016.
(18)James, A., How to make bone broth: Brodo chef Marco Canora shares his recipe; Today Foodhttp://www. today.com/food/how-make-bone-broth-brodo-chef-marco-canora-shares-his-2D80452900, January 15, 2015 Accessed April 21, 2016